AkHiL DaMoDaRaN

my telecom blog

3g and 4g implimentation in INDIA

  Article on establishment of 3g technologies in India  

   IN TODAYS WORLD TECHNOLOGY PLAYS A VERY IMPORTANT ROLE IN DETERMINING DEVELOPMENT AND STRENGTH OF A COUNTRY. IF WE JUST COMPARE THE WORLD, TODAY MANY NEW DEVELOPMENT IS HAPPENING EVERYDAY, THERE IS LOTS OF TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT HAPPENING IN THE WORLD. TAKE ANY SECTOR MAY BE BOITECHNOLOGY, TELECOM SECTOR ETC, IN WHICH TELECOM SECTOR HAS DEVELOPED TREMENDOUSLY NEW TECHNOLOGY LIKE WIMAX, WIBRO OR SIMPLY 4G CAME INTO EXISTENCE.  IN INDIA ALSO TELECOM SECTOR HAS CHANGED WITHIN THESE 10 YEAR SPAN,IT HAS GROWN SPECTACULRLY AND SURPRISINGLY VERY HIGH. IT IS GROWING AT A RATE OF 130%, WHICH IS MORE THAN ANY OTHER COUNTRY IN THE WORLD.EVEN MAIN PROPORTION OF THE GDP GROWTH (8%) IN INDIA IS MAINLY BECOUSE OF TELECOM SECTOR. THE MAIN INFLUENCE BEHIND THE FAST GROWTH OF TELECOMMUNICATION IS THE GROWTH OF NEW TECHNOLOGY IN THE WORLD CHANGES IN THE POLICIES OF GOVERNMENT COMPETITION FROM THE NEIHBOURING COUNTRIES LIKE CHINA. COMING OF NEW PRIVATE OPERATERS IN INDIA. AND MANY SUCH REASONS.   

IF WE COMPARE TODAYS SCENERIO OF THE WORLD 2G IS GETTING OVER FROM THE EUROPEAN MARKET BECOUSE OF THE NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT IN TECHNOLOGY AND INCREASE IN CONSUMER DEMAND, THE NEW TECHNOLOGY IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES WHICH IS WORKING NOW IS 3G TECHNOLOGY.

 IN JAPAN AND KOREA 3G TECHNOLOGY HAS BEEN INRODUCED MUCH BEFORE EUROPEAN COUTRIES BECOUSE OF PRICING PROBLEM OF THE SPECTRUM WHICH DELAYED THE COMING OF 3G IN EUROPE. IN THE NEW AGE OF TECHNOLOGY MOBILE IS NOT JUST A MEANS OF COMMUNICATION BUT ALSO A MEAN OF ENTERTAINMENT, INTERNET ETC. TODAY IF WE WANT TO GET LIVE CRICKET IT IS POSSIBLE THROUGH MOBILE ALSO (NOT YET IN INDIA), THE CONCEPT OF VIRTUAL OFFICE ANDPOCKET PC CAME INTO EXISTENCE NO ONE EVER PREDICTED THAT ONE DAY TELECOM AND COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY WILL JOINTLY DEVELOP A NEW TECHNOLOGY. HISTORY OF TELECOM IN INDIA IN INDIA, TELECOMMUNICATION DEVELOPMENT STARTED VERY LATE BECOUSE OF LACK OF INVESTMENTS, poor infrastructure, LACK OF COMPETITION, ETC.IF WE SEE FORTYYEARS BACK VERY FEW PEOPLE HAD TELEPHONE IN THEIR HOME. AT THAT TIME ONLY RICH PEOPLE HAD PHONES, TO GIVE MESSAGES TO LONG DISTANCE POSTCARDS OR LETTER WERE THE MEAN OF COMMUNICATION. IN ORDER TO REACH A DESTINATION THE LETTER WILL REACH AFTER ONE WEEK OR MORE.TODAY IF WE WANT TO GIVE A MESSAGE WE USE EMAIL OR MOBILE WHICH SEND MESSAGE AT A TIME OF 50TH PART OF A SECOND. THIS IS DUE TO THE COMING OF NEW INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY. Now a days nothing is seem to be impossible, the concept of telemedicine came into existence, the doctor is sitting in one state and he treats patient sitting in other state through video conferencing.Today telecommunication field has developed spectacularly in India. THE TECHNOLOGICAL EVOLUTION IN INDIA HAS CHANGED THE TOTAL PHASE OF INDIAN MARKET.IN JUST SIX-YEAR SPAN INDIA MADE TREMENDOUS GROWTH EXPANTION IN THE TELECOM INDUSTRY TODAY.EVEN EUROPEAN COMPANIES WANT TO SETUP THEIR BASE in INDIA BECAUSE OF FAST DEVELOPING MARKET OF INDIA.If we see the present condition in India we can see that India has made a very high growth rate in telecom sector, which is evident by the report published by OVUM in jan2005Annual GDP contribution of telecom sector is Rs. 37300 Crores.Employment opportunity 36 lakhsAnnual revenue to the government Rs 14500 Crores.Which has been doubled in India since we have 100 million subscribers in 2006TECHNOLOGY PRESENT IN INDIA The mobile technology which India is using now is gsm and cdma technology. In which GSM has the largest customer base as compared to CDMA. 

The Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) is the most popular standard for MOBILE PHONES in the world. Over 2 billion people use GSM services across more than 210 countries and territories. The ubiquity of the GSM standard makes international roaming very common between mobile phones enabling subscribers to use their phones in many parts of the world. GSM differs significantly from its predecessors in that both signaling and speech channels are digital voice quality, which means that it is considered a second-generation (2G) mobile phone system. This fact has also meant that data communication was built into the system from very early on. GSM is an open standards which is currently developed by the (3GPP).

  The major players who are giving GSM technology in India are bharti (airtel), hutch, idea and many others.The major advantage of using the gsm technology is higher digital voice quality and low cost alternatives to making calls such as text messaging. The advantage for network operators has been the ability to deploy equipment from different vendors because the open standard allows easy inter-operability. Like other cellular standards GSM allows network operators to offer roaming services which mean subscribers can use their phones all over the world. GSM was designed with a moderate level of security. The system was designed to authenticate the subscriber using shared-secret cryptography. Communications between the subscriber and the base station can be encrypted. The development of UMTS introduces an optional USIM, that uses a longer authentication key to give greater security, as well as mutually authenticating the network and the user – whereas GSM only authenticated the user to the network (and not vice versa). The security model therefore offers confidentiality and authentication, but limited authorization capabilities, and no non-repudiation.GSM uses several cryptographic algorithms for security. The a/5/1and a5/2 stream cipher are used for ensuring over-the-air voice privacy. A5/1 was developed first and is a stronger algorithm used withinAfter the change in regulatory policies and introduction of new mobile companies’ GSM phones became a massive hit in the Indian market. The phones which costing 20000 or more 5 years ago now they are available for 4000 or 5000 new mobiles with lots of facility has been introduced in the market and as the living standard of Indians are increasing people are ready to buy higher grade phones but new cheap phones have entered the market now even people who are lower middle class also buys mobiles, this is a good impact of today’s telecom market. Gsm provides security facility also, A large security advantage of GSM over earlier systems is that the IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity), authentication key (ki), Local Area Identity (LAI), TMSI (Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity) Access Control Class (ACC) the crypto variable stored on the SIM card that is the key to any GSM ciphering (Kc) algorithm, is never sent over the air interface.    In this new development a new technology was also introduced in India that is CDMA Technology CDMA Technology is another mobile technology which was developed by qualcomm and was introduced in india by reliance infocomm and now tata indicomm is also giving the cdma technology in India. To go further first we should know briefly what is cdma technology. Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) is a type of multiplexing (not a modulation scheme) and it is also a method of multiple access that does not divide up the channel by time (as in TDMA), or frequency (as in FDMA), but instead encodes data with a special code associated with each channel and uses the constructive interference properties of the special codes to perform the multiplexing. CDMA also refers to digital cellular telephony systems that make use of this multiple access scheme, such as those pioneered by Qualcomm, and W-CDMA by the international telecom union or ITU. The main difference between GSM and CDMA is that GSM is a specification of entire network structure but CDMA Interface relates only to the air interface (radio technology) After many developments the IS-95 model is changed to IS-2000.This was done to meet the specification of IMT-2000 for 3G specification.But in India higher grades of CDMA technology has not been launchedThis is due to delay of coming of CDMA in India and low infrastructure facility present in India.CDMA is more advantageous than GSM due to the reason that in CDMA each user has its own pseudonoise (PN) code.Because of which there is no frequency planning needed in CDMA. As compared to GSM. Developments happening in CDMAThere are many new versions came for CDMA, which are;Cdma20003x , Cdma20001x ev-do ,Cdma 20001xev-dv  In India this technology will take a longer time to come because present system is not fully prepared for it. Now according to the current world trend, consumer demand, and most important to increase the growth percentage of economy India should start its new ways to setup 3G technology in India.As we compare other Asian countries like china and Japan they have introduced 3.5G technology in their countries and they are going to setup 4G commercially in 2007-2008And compare to this country India has a long way to go, to get upto the mark with these countries in terms of technology.Indian government is targeting towards the launch of 3G in India by 2007.And supporting to governments intention many companies are betting on 3G in India and they are submitting their own plans for 3G to the government and then on this issue regulators (TRAI) have to play a vital role due to their authority control over spectrum licensing. If we just observe the impact on the coming of 3G in India then we can see that coming of 3G will bring a revolution in Indian telecom sector.If we compare 2G technology with 3G then we can see that 3G technology are mainly having high mobility and they are having strong bandwidth as compared to its 2G counterparts.In achieve the goal of establishing 3G network in India we require extensive network coverage provided as quickly as possible and the development of a competitive mobile telecommunication market. Economic and market factors in India for 3G.As Indian market is concerned main driver of  3G will be mass consumer market due to its services and applicationsLike we can expect that the main factor for boosting the revenues collected by 3G services will be its value-added services like downloads, videos, movies etc.becouse it give high facility to explore such application. These facilities are the main killer application of 3G, which will make an impact on Indian market.If we just observe global roaming and mass market volume  are the key enablers for the success of 3G in India. The effect of 2G on the establishment of 3G system in India.  2G is a different entity as compared to 3G networkbut anyhow for a newer entry to Indian market 3G will work on the base of 2G network mainly GPRS, which will enable the operators to provide 3G services. The range of services provided using 3G network will be large diverse and the numbering and addressing arrangement are likely to be strongly related to this services. But as 3G is mainly oriented on data quality rather than voice quality we can’t predict that 3G will be popular in business field or in entertainment field. But these things are secondary but the primary matter is whether we are ready for 3G are we have all the necessary setup required for 3g.For that we have to cover up all the areas of India with mobile coverage, if we see the current condition 70% of the rural economy in India don’t have mobile coverage. For that Sharing of telecom infrastructure should be done in a large basis, for example BSNL has a largest networking base in India and if we compare any other private operator they do not have full coverage over whole rural area so BSNL should share its infrastructures with other private operators for growing the network coverage very fast pace and for this regulator plays a major roles.  But to think about 3G, its setup may take a much longer time to come because it will requires new access network, which will be entirely different from present infrastructure. And the other reason is the high cost and complexity of 3g product. Which will increase the cost of 3g products.But telecom companies in India are working on these areas to give solution for these upcoming problems. Many of the companies are working on this problems likeBharti they are all set to launch 3g mobiles at a cost of $100, which is very cheap, and it will attract the market also.Mr. Sunil mittal is very positive and is betting on 3g technology.He saysThe coming of 3G will certainly boost the  market and could link up yet unconnected mobile communication internet access and on demand TV on a single stage.” If we see the present scenario of the country the introduction of 3g will certainly provide a mass opportunity for development in every sector.3g mobiles services are expected to provide a fully portable service portfolio accessible from substantially any fixed or mobile telephone subject only to the subscriber being able to identify him or herself to the network. That is why the3g services in India will combine the terminal mobility provided by current 2g network.   To establish 3g we have to find ways to establishing it through the present infrastructure of 2g only, because that will be the most economical and the best possible way.That’s why the experts are saying that 3g core network will be based on the existing GSM, GPRS standards enabling  existing GSM operators to provide 3g services using  either a GPRS or 3g air interface most 3g terminal are expected to be multimode provide access to 2g and 3g radio network.For establishing the 3g technology in India wimax has given their report on how establish 3g in India,The wimax forum support trai’s attempts to ensure availability of adequate and spectrum to the services providers and broadband wireless access (BWA) in India.Introduction of wimax in India and spectrum issue;The WIMAX forum is an industry -led non profit organization formed to promote and certify compatibility and interoperability of broadband wireless product using IEEE 802.16 and ETSI HIPERMAN wireless metropolitan area network specification. Wimax has many uses like last mile broadband connection, hotspot, cellular blackhaul, and high-speed enterprise connectivity for business and broadband mobile specification. Wimax forum certified product will be interoperable and support metropolitan broadband fixed, portable, mobile application. According to wimax forum paper submitted to trai,WIMAX certified technology will be given as fixed and nomadic usage using indoor antenna and gradually we will shift towards Wi-Fi or W-LAN like application. Wimax certified products will give provide platform for converged voice, data, internet, and multimedia services supported by a high data rate. The wimax forum has submitted some specification of bands suitable for wimax ;1) 3.4 to 3.6 GHz3.4-3.4GHZ (India)2) 2.5 to 2.69 GHZc) 2.3- 2.4Ghz It is given that 2.5 to 2.69 GHZ is used by INSAT for satellite services.The primary allocation 2.5 -2.69GHZ is for MSS and BSS satellite services.The mss has a downlink allocation in the band 2483.5-2535 MHZ and an uplink allocation 2655-2690Mhz.  For efficient network deployment in India and business ability we recommend a spectrum allocation of about 30 MHZ per operator for wimax. (If we see the current situation most developed mobile proposition for wimax is that of ‘wibro’ made in Korea  which has 8.75 MHz channel and 27 MHz per operator.) But in India this situation is not possible according to current situation because in current situation that much spectrum is not available, regulators in India are trying to sole this problems. On this problem Lucent technology believes that reasonable effort should be made to make available additional 2.5 to 2.6 GHZ bands for allocation BWA for its various mode.In areas of expected high BWA traffic a minimum of 30 MHz per operator be provided noting that in low demand areas, smaller blocks could be considered. and for the allocation of WIMAX the spectrum should be assigned on the geographical basis. For the spectrum allocation in India it is recommended point that all existing mobile operators must be entitled to 3g spectrum for their evolution and growth.If we just compare internationally the practice is to ensure 2*15 MHz for each 3g operators.Under this circumstances the present availability of 2ghz spectrum in India will be able to support at best only one or two 3g players which will not ensure enough competition in 3g,And it will reduce the potential of FDI in the country. If we see the present condition of India 6-7 operators work in every service area and the limited availability of spectrum in the 2.1ghz and the given condition is practically impossible.In India 3g is considered as a continuation of 2g, if the same is allowed to be introduced as an overlay network a starting assignment of 2*5 MHz per operator would be sufficient that will be beneficial for India.In order to meet the challenge of 3G in the near future and to meet the target made the operator should have secure and predictable access to spectrum and predictable access to spectrum and therefore, the use of the 2.6 GHz as an extenuation band for 3g needs to be guaranteed.Another main problem which we are having is the spectrum pricing the regulators should decide the criteria for spectrum pricing by keeping in mind the revenue of the government and requirement of the funds for reforming, demand and supply situation, economic and social benefit of 3g services.For making the pricing policies regulators should give utmost importance to economical and social benefits that 3g could deliver to India. Internationally reputed company qualcomm suggest that regulators in India should correct all the technological based spectrum problem and give equal opportunity to all service providers irrespective of technologyTo remove subscriber based spectrum assignmentEncourage the efficient use of a scarce public resource by supporting         Flexibility of evolution of cdma 2000 1xto ev-do in the existing 800mhz band. -The implementation of WCDMA and all its evolution in the existing900/1800 MHz bands. Which is currently used by GSM operators for 2g operations.-To adopt technology neutral spectrum assignment policy to recognize that there are various broadband wireless access technologies in addition to wimax such as IMT2000/3G FLASH-OFDM, IEEE-802.20etc. To coordinate with the I and B to enable the deployment of mobile broadcast technologies in the 700MHZ band taking advantage of the fact that this spectrum is currently allocated with technical rules applied for broadcasting technologies.(These suggestions are given by qualcomm India to trai).   If we talk about other communication technology ALCATEL is working on development of BWA based on IEEE802.16e technology. for providing excellent bwa communication in India.Moreover satellite systems now equipped with broadband capacity are planned to be used as geostationary and non-geostationary system. The regional and global of these systems will make new data services available to people. So in the coming years the need of radio spectrum will increase due to increase in demand of consumer needs. So ALCATEL suggest trai to join the global trend and allocate the wrc92 band for 3g in India as the only future solution.Now if we think about the quantum of spectrum which should be given to each operator for that Alcatel suggest licensing of 2*15mhz(fdd) plus 5mhz(tdd) of IMT2000 spectrum per operator. This approach ideally fills all the available IMT 2000 bands in India (60Mhz both uplink and downlink) on equal basis furthermore it gives balanced opportunity to all service operators.   If these suggestions are considered and implemented very soon then 3G technology will be established in India in the next year onwards and it will come in the commercial market in the coming year,And we are sure that if these things are implemented then coming of 3g will become a boon to India. And we will not have to face the problems, which was faced by European countries. And by 3 years we can directly jump to 4g technology. It is rightly said that even great empires are not built in a day in the in the same way to accomplish these tasks we have to build these technologies step by step and by 2010 may be we can reach upto 4g.  

References:

Trai website

Economic times

Wikipedia.org

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9 Comments »

  1. hey dear…………..
    nice collection of articles about 3G & 4G. think u had done good work in this concept. keep it up. and try to update it regularly
    ..
    ..
    regards kuldeep

    Comment by kuldeep | December 9, 2007

  2. well done.keep it up

    Comment by Dr.Damodharan | December 9, 2007

  3. ‘llow hunk

    can u plz laborate on the billing process of these nu telecome babies 🙂
    b/w dont u think the concept of 4g i.e making hi-speed data trancfer at hi-speed ( processing n delivering data at mach ( supersonic) level’s ) is a ways closer to makin time travel posible?

    i mean ok this is my fantacy but still u never know from where an apple can make help u device revolusionary conclusion

    regards
    ur’s truly

    Comment by eeyore | December 10, 2007

  4. nice work buddy ……….. gud job ….. solved a lot of my curiosities about this demon named 3g

    but dont u think that this all is going too late ……

    i mean ….. talk about all the other 3g using countries …….. its passe …..

    they are all at the end of all this 3g stuff and all ready for the next gen technology ……….

    so considering all that ……. dont u think this all is going too late in india …… ???

    Comment by fuser | December 12, 2007

  5. ya u r write fuser that its getting too late to start 3g in india .
    its becouse india is not that much upgraded in communcation networks so it took so long in here.
    but dont mind from next year u will see things happening

    Comment by akhil887 | December 13, 2007

  6. u r thinking above what this concept means eeyore

    mainly 4g and 3g are data communication network not mass tranfer network what i mean is time travel is related to quantum not dgital communication

    Comment by akhil887 | December 13, 2007

  7. yo man…better said …rome was not built in a day ….

    as u suggest that by 2010 we will be using 4g technology(estimated) but i think it is not possible since its end of the year 07 and we have only 2 years left by 2010 and we not yet became as 3g …..so lets hope that in the up coming year we upgraded ourself as a 3g tech ..and also all ur words also come true …..

    well done once again for such a nice topic code u have taken up..

    Comment by Anirudh garg | December 17, 2007

  8. yes anirudh u r right that as comparison to todays scenerio 4g will be too late but i should tell u 3g was a markt failure in european countries and they have now shifted to 3.5 g or more and for india to move to 3.5g or more we need 3g platform so once 3g plateform is made they will quickly shift to advance versions

    Comment by akhil887 | December 18, 2007

  9. good wrk buddy ……….

    Comment by ankit | December 21, 2007


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